The Island of the gods.
Bali need no introduction. Artists and tourist have been coming to this island since the 1920s, when air travel was in its infancy and sea travel was considered an extravagance. They heard of the fabulous attractions of the island word of mouth and they came, looking for beauty and peace of mind, enjoying its virgin palm-fringed beaches and the sights of its peaceful village set in a tapestry of green paddies and towering mountains. Temple is every where. It has been named the world’s last paradise, because of its beautiful nature and idyllic mood

Bali has many sobriquets. People have called it The Island of the Gods, because worship colors very facet of life among the Hindu Balinese. Temples are everywhere. It has been named the world’s Last Paradise, because of its beautiful nature and idyllic mood. The late first Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru called it The Morning of the world.

Art pervades the daily life of the Balinese. Almost every village has its artists, many of whom have achieved worldwide acclaim. Bali is one of the few places in the world where one can see a cowherd by sculpting a piece of wood or coconut shell while watching his herd.
Bali’s music and dances have fascinated discriminating audience in prominent art centers in many countries around the world.

New wind maybe blowing, but as long as Balinese art culture remain expressions of the people’s deepest beliefs, there appears to be no danger that they will become things of the past anywhere in the foreseeable future.
Almost every village has its artists, many of whom have achieved worldwide acclaim.

Geography and Climate
Bali is not big island. It occupies an area of only about 6.000 square kilometers. The longest distance in 140 kilometers. Bali is located just off the eastern tip of Java, from which it is separate by the Bali strait. Immediately to its east is the island of Lombok, across the Lombok strait. On its north and south side, the island is flanked by the Java sea and the Indian ocean, respectively. The island lies on a latitude of 80 south of the equator.

Generally, the southern part of the island is covered by wide and fertile lowlands and mountain foothills. Many small rivers, which have their headwaters in the mountains in the center of the island, flow through those plains and empty into the Indian ocean. The most important towns and cities in this area are, from west to east: Gilimanuk, Negara, Jembrana, Tabanan, Denpasar, Gianyar, bangle, Klungkung, and amlapura. Along the narrow coastal lowland strip in the north are Singaraja and its port, Buleleang.

Hills and mountains fill the central parts of the island, running along an east –west axis. The highest are the mountain Agung (3.142 m), Abang (2.150 m), Bratan (2.270 m), Merbuk ( (1.386 m), and Patas ( 1.474 m). mount Batur is still active . so is Gunung (Mount) Agung, whose last eruption in 1963 divested vast areas in its vicinity.

Some cool and beautifull lakes are found in thee central higlands, such as Lake Bratan and Lake Batur. Rivers, such as the Badung and the Kelandis, flow fro these mountains, both of them through Denpasar, the island’s capital.

Like most other regions in Indonesia, Bali has two season : a dry season, lasting from April to September, and a rainy season, lasting from October to March. Those two seasons are separated by a transition period of unpredictable weather. The dry season is hot during the day, but coo during the night. The average daily temperature in Bali ranges from 280 -300 centigrade in the lowlands. In the town and villages in the mountains it is about 100 centigrade. The most pleasant time of the year is between May and September.

People and Government
The people, Bali’s plains are very fertile and about thirds of the people of Bali are engaged in agricultural. Irrigated rice fields, often laid out in neat terraces carved out of the mountain slopes, and other seasonal crops are found from the highlands down to the lowlands.

The people also rear cattle and pigs. The Bali beef is first-rate. In the coastal regions an important source of live hood is fishing in the sea or fish farming in ponds. Also important as a source of income are the crafts – painting and sculpting in particular – in which many Balinese are engaged.

Government, the island of Bali constitutes a province of Indonesia, and is administered by governor. With a population of approximately three million people and total land surface of 5.809 square kilometers, Bali is one of the most densely populated territories of Indonesia.

The province of Bali consists of eight regencies, each administered by a regent. They are Badung (caital, Denpasar), Bulelang (singaraja), Gianyar (gianyar), Bangli ( Bangli), Klungkung (klungkung), Karangasem (amlapura), jembrana (Negara), and tabanan (tabanan)

The city of Denpasar is the provincial capital of Bali. It has a population of more than 100.000. the province has 54 districts with 555 villages, which in Bali are called Banjar. A Banjar is led by a Klian Banjar as the village head.

A unique Balinese communal the distribution of the Subak, which control the distribution of irrigation water among farmers.

Another communal organization is the seka, which manages certain other aspects of village life, such as the organization of ceremonies.

Bali, A living Museum
It does not seem exaggerated to say that Bali constitutes a museum of the Hindu culture in Indonesia, because it is the only place in which the creed is still actively practiced, albeit in a form that strongly infused with local elements – as it must have been in java and elsewhere, too, in the past.

The gods of the Hindu pantheon, but also evil spirits, or Buta, are omnipresent, and their influence on the fate of human beings is ever felt.

In its various expressions, all this can be observed daily in Bali, sometimes in colorful ceremonies, but often in little details such as the presence of flower offerings in tiny baskets in taxis, or in the burning of joss sticks in hotel lobbies.

History, Religion And Culture
Relics of history have been found in Bali dating back to prehistoric times. Among them are stone axes and hatchets. Of a more recent origin is the kettle-drum, made of an alloy of bronze and tin, that was found near the village Pejeng. This one is the biggest kettle-drums that has ever been found in Indonesia, having a height of 186.5 centimeters and a width of 165 centimeters.

In 1282, King kertanegara of Singasari, East Java, sent troops to Bali in order to subjugate the island. This, however was not fully accomplished until Gajah Mada became premier of Majapahit. Under his rule, Bali came under the strong influence of Majapahit.

The arrival of the refugees from Majapahit ushered in a new era on the island of Bali, dominated by the new bali-majapahit community. A section of the indigenous people of Bali, however, remained firm in maintaining their ancestral culture and traditions, and refused to be influence by the Hindu-Javanese culture today, this community is known as the “Bali Aga” who live around Tenganan and Trunyan.

The Dutch first set foot on Balinese soil in 1597, when a Dutch flotilla was forced to anchor in the island’s water for several days.

Before the arrival of Hinduism in Indonesia, the people of Bali, like other in Indonesia, adhered to the ancient Indonesia animist belief, which holds that many objects in nature are inhabited by spirits, either good ones or bad.

Similarly, when a person dies, his soul does not return too god, but stays on earth to dwell in mountains or trees or other objects, at least for some time.

Hinduism arrived in Bali in a form that was strongly intermixed with Buddhism – a phenomenon known as syncretism. this blend, again, was strongly infused with elements of the old ancestral beliefs. So, the creed called Tetrayana was born – a curious mix of animism, Hinduism and Buddhism.

When Islam began its ascent in Java, this creed of Tetrayana was brought over from Java to Bali. This is the creed known today as the Hindu Balinese Religion. The Hinduism element however is dominant.

Balinese Hinduism aims to achieve the physical and spiritual well-being of its followers through the tenets revealed by Sang Hyang Widhi – of god in the form of the Trimurti yang Esa (the holy trinity). Trimurti takes three appearances, each representing god in certain manifestation : as Brahmana ( the creator), as wisnu (the protector), and as Siwa (the destroyer. The Balinese, therefore believe in one god. However, they also believe in various deities, and spirits, who are all of lower rank than the trimurti.

The Hinduism in Bali also recognizes the concept of Atman (the everlasting soul); Karmapala (the principle of causality); Purnabawa (rebirth), and Moksa (the final release from the cycle of rebirth).

The Balinese performed their congregational prayer at houses of worship which they call Pura (Temples), of which several types are known.

Ceremonies in Bali
There are two kinds of ceremonies in Bali: Hindu and traditional. To the Balinese ceremonies are a means of communication with God in his various manifestations. There are five religious ceremonies, to name:

Dewa-Yadnya, which is a ceremony for the benefit of the ancestral soul. When a person dies while his family is not able yet to carry out the cremation (called nagaben), the body is buried, with the head in the direction of either the mountain or the rising sun. as soon as the means are available to hold the cremation, the body is dug up again.

Ngaben (cremation), derive from the word, “ngaba” and “in”, meaning making offerings in the form of goods and prayers. The body is creamed in a tower in the shape of a dragon or cow-black for women and white for men in the case of the later. The procession proceeds cheerfully. The cremation takes place at cemetery and is led by the head of the village. The ashes are thrown into the river or the sea.

Manusia yadnya, ceremonies related to the human life cycle from birth to adulthood, such ass tooth-filling, religious thanksgiving meals for the unborn, or wedding ceremonies.

Resi Yadnya, an offering ceremony for holy person (sages). Buta Yadnya, an offering ceremonies for all creatures in the universe in order to attain harmony.

Large ceremonies are Panca Wali Krama 9held once in every 10 year), and Eka Dasa Rudra (every 100 years). The last Eka Dasa Rudra ceremonies was held at Besakih Temple from februari 27 to april 23, 1979. its purposed ws to usher in the new century (the year 1901 caka) so the world would always be peacefull and tranquil, without disturbances.

The first day of the Balinese new year is Nyepi Day. Nyepi is part of the Buta Yadnya ceremony. At the end of the year New year’s eve – animals are sacrificed by each village in order that it will be cleansed of sin before entering the new year. Sacrificial food, consisting of wines and meat, is placed on the road for bad souls. During the night, gongs are sounded to drive the bad souls away. In Denpasar, a torch procession is held during those nights. Nyepi is held the next day.

The Nyepi ceremony starts before sunrise and lasts for the next 24 hours. People obtain from four activities: turning on light or lighting fires to cook (called mati geni), working, traveling and having sexual relations. The purpose is to star the new year with a clean record.

Ciwa-Ratri Day is the night of holy contemplation to beg god’s forgiveness . it is held throughout the night before the moon sets in the seventh month of the year.

Saraswati Day is a day devoted to the worship of god. It is held once every 210 days, on Saturday of the umanis uku Watugunng denomination . on this day, it is forbidden to read the holy book.

Pagerwesi day is the day of worship Sang Hyang Widhi (god) in his manifestation as Sang Hyang Paremesti guru performing Yoga ( the hindu practice aimed at training the consciousness for achieving a state of perfect spiritual insight and tranquility) for the sake of tranquility in the universe. It is held once every 210 days on Wednesday of the kliwon uku Sinta denomination. On this day, the spirit is strengthened.

Galungan Day is a day of worship and thanksgiving because the unioverseand its contents have been created by sang hyang widhi.
It is held on Wednesday of the Uku Dungulan denomination. The day before it, people must abstain from sexual intercourse. On Galungan day, man must purify himself, to thank god for the blessings he has bestowed on mankind. On Tuesday, at dawn, all Hindus in Bali relish the leftovers from the sacrificial meals available in the house. Then, people pay friends and relatives a visit and wish them well.

Kuningan take place 10 days after Galungan, it is held to welcome the return of Sang Pitare.
Melis or Melasti is a ceremony in which temple paraphernalia are cleaned in the sea. This ceremony is held by each family.
All these religious ceremonies are led by a priest. Generally, ceremones are held at the temples. The kayangan temple is dedicated to the worship of sang hyang eidhi,

The Tooth filling Ceremony is held to mark a young man or woman’s coming of age. According to Balinese, sharp teeth are for wild animals. People must file theirs to appear decent.

The Caste System
The caste system, or social stratification, is known in Bali, where, at least theoretically, a person’s position in society is determined at birth.
Brahmana are the descendants of priest; Ksatria are descended from the aristocracy; waisya are people of the traders of craftsmen’s class. those three castes are known as the Triwangsa, or three dependencies class. The fourth class is that of the Sudra, or common people, who are also called as Jaba, or outsiders class. Most Balinese – about 75 percent – belong to this class.

Names in Bali are indicative of their caste. The Brahmana bear titles like Ida Bagus for males and Ida Ayu for females. People of the aristocracy have the title Cokorda for males and ida cokorda for females in front of their names. People of the Waisya caste bear the title I Dewa for males and I Desah for Females. People born in the Sudra castle have no title whatsoever.

The Art
Bali is famous for its art and artistists, Balinese art is original and distinctive. It is, however, anything but static. The view has been offered that average Balinese is born an artists.

The oldest classical painting, drawings, are found on lontar palm leaves, in the form of figure engraved with a sharp object, then rubbed with dye – usually soot mixed with coconut oil. Later came the leather puppets of the Wayang shadow theater. This is presumably the beginning of the painter’s art in Bali.

The arrival in the early part of this decade of the Dutch painter Rudolf Bonnet (1895-1958), who stayed in Bali from 1928 to 1958, gave new turn to painting in Bali.

Another expatriate painter whose influence on Bali’s art of painting was great, was the German Water Spies. Spies thought the Balinese to use new colors and introduced greater element naturalism to Balinese paintings. His influence also brought a shift in focus, or theme, away from the empyrean and closer to daily life.

In 1961, the Dutch painter Arie Smith came, ands started a new school of painting known as that of the Young Artists, centered at Panestanan, not far from Ubud. Smith stated by teaching children in Bali to experiment with the new acrylic colors.

Balinese painting has also undergone the influence of the abstract style, introduced by student of the academy of fine arts (ASRI) in Yogyakarta, Udayana University in Denpasar, and the Bandung Institute of technology’s school of design and art.

The oldest style of sculpture in Bali existing at present can be seen n the statues of deities and other ritual object that are found all over the island.

Ida bagus is one of the most famous proponents of this style. Of great influence also was I nyoman Tjokot, who strived in his works to follow as much as possible the natural forms and characteristics of the material used. Thus, the weirdest shapes emerged from roots and driftwood. Tjokot apparently derived his inspiration from the Taro Temple, which was built during the majapahit era.

Despite such developments, however, Bali’s art of sculpting remains closely related to religion, the original source from which it sprang.

Like the other arts, Balinese classical literature is inspired by religion. As several castes exist in Bali, so the language is stratified accordingly.

The oldest literary works of Bali are written on lontar palm leaves, in Balinese script, works on lontar leaves are at present preserved in the Kertya Museum in Singaraja, and in the Bali Museum in Denpasar.

Bali’s dances can be classified into three main categories. The first is the Wali temple dance. The second is known as bebali, which are dances that are performed during religious ceremonies, but contain elements of entertainment and are related to daily life. To this category belong the Gambuh, and Parwa dances. The third category is dances that serve the sole purpose of entertainment. These are called Balih-baliahan. Their thems are derived either from folklore, such as the panji Semirang cycle, or from daily life. To the latter group belong such dances as the fishermen’s dance, the full-moon dance, and farmer’s dance.

The kecak dance is a mass dance performed by about 150 people. This dance illustrate an episode of the Ramayana epic, in which group of monkeys try to rescue Dewi Sinta from the clutches of the giant Rahwana, who has kidnapped her. The monkeys are represented by massed male dancers, sitting cross-legged in a circle around a torch. While King Rama and his consort Sinta wear beautiful costumes.

The Pendet was originally a wali ( temple) dance, performed by men and women carrying offerings.
The Leggong is a sacred dance, offered to the gods. It includes the Sanghyang Legong Kraton dances.
The Kebyar dance is performed by one person, usually a male, dancing in squatting position. The Jauk dance is also performed by one male dancer, and represents an evil masked giant.

The barong-Kris is more like drama, illustrating a barong (a mythical animal resembling a lion) fighting the evil witch Rangda. Sometimes this dance caries the theme of Dewi Sri the goddess of the rice field. Generally, the show is closed with a Kris dance, in which young men get into a trance, stabbing themselves with Kris, yet remain unhurt.

Balinese artistry expresses itself in countless other ways, such as making the intricate young palm-leaf containers for flowers, or arranging temple offerings.

South Bali :
Denpasar, Sanur, Kuta & Nusa Dua

Most of the places of interest in Bali are found in the southeren part of the island. Traveling overland from java, and making the crossing from banyuwangi, the ferry harbor at the eastern end o the island, to Gilimanuk on the bali side of the trail, we can start the trip from Denpasar.

Visitor coming in by plane must disembark at Ngurah Rai international Airport, in Denpasar. So, in either case, Denpasar is a convenient point of the departure.
Denpasar is the capital of bali province, located about 12 kilometers from Ngurah rai international Airport. The biggest city on the island, Denpasar has a population of approximately 120.000. Denpasar is also the capital of the Badung regency.
Many decades ago, Denpasar was a smalltown with narrow roads. It has since grown into a crowded city, known throughout the world.

Denpasar has a number of places worth visiting.
The bali Museum, in the center of the city, not far fro the Puputan badung field, was founded in 1910 by the DutchmanW.F. Kroon, and was then known by the name arca Buildig. The Bali museum is an ethnographic museum, illustrating the culture of Bali, its history, the people’s way of life, its ats and its religion. In 1925, the main building, in the shape of traditional Balinese huse in Karang Asem style, was completed.
The museum was officially opened in 1932, under the name Bali Museum. Among its valuable colectios can be found ancient inscribed stones, statues, old drawings, and models of marriage, tooth filling, Nagaben (cremation), and other ceremonies. Not very far away is Jero kuta, a temple in traditional architectural style, related to the Klungkung temple.

The crowded Badung market is located in the center of the city. Traders, mostly women, come to the market at atound mdidnight, carrying their merchandise in trucks to be spread outside the market.
The melanting temple is locted dnear a crowded parking lt.
Kombasari is a crowded shoping center, open every day from morning to night. Various arts and crafts, such as statues, handicrafts and drawings are sold here.

Satria Market lies at the corner of Jalan Nakula and jalan veteran, at the north side of Jalan Gajah Mada. Handicrafts and art are for sale. Prices are reasonable, but quality is not always guaranteed.

The Bird Market, is ot far from Jalan Vetean, near the gate to the Satria Temple. Various species of bIrds, such as parakeets, cockatoos, pigeons and peacocks are sold here. Sometimes also rabbits, monkeys and puppies.
Kreneng Market, in the southern part o Denpasar, is also an inter-city bus station for shops here are open from morning until night. There are plenty of restaurants.

The Pekambingan Fair is a popular and crowded fair ground lying at the end of Jalan Diponogor, facing the Kertajaya Shoping center. Enjoy the low-priced but delicious foods at the stalls.
The supermarket at the north end of Jalan Sudirma is a modern and new shopping facility in Denpasar. A bird park and a playground for children has recently been added.

The Sanglah Market, in the north of Denpasar, opens in the morning and is crowded during the day, but is already deserted in the early evening. There is a fair at the corner of this market, much visited by children and young people.
Ubung Bus station, in the northwest of the city, serves routes to java and the western regions of Bali. There are shops selling fruits, snacks and refreshments.

Sindu Market, in the Sanur Beach area, has shops selling arts and crafts. A similar market is found at Kuta Beach, near the end of Jalan Bakungsari. Besides arts and crafts, ready-to-wear clothes are also sold here.

Pemecutan temple is located on the road side leading to Kuta. The art works, weapons, ancient music instruments and a pavilion for cock fights are preserved at this temple.
The werdi Buday art center is located in the city center. Here, artists work, study, trai and sell their work. All the building in the complex follow the Balinese building style.

A Kori agung, or main gate, separates the front yard and the open –air theater, genuine works of art are on permanent displays, and there are occasional art exhibitions, stage performances, and an art appreciation program.
At the distance of three kilometers from Denpasar to the north, lila Ulangan Wonga park, with its enchanting scenery at the side of the Ayung river.

At the distance of 2.5 kilometers from the center of Denpasar, going towards the west, is Masopahit Grenceng Temple. This temple is a reminder of the Majapahit era. The building style is similar to that found on ancient East javaese structures.
Its main gate is decorated with big reliefs with figures of a giant and an eagle. A stage and terracotta satues are found at the backside of the temple. A Piodalan (temple festival) is held ere every Wednesday of the kliwon Motal denomination.

Sanur and Kuta
.Sanur Beach, is only six kilometers to the east of Denpasar. Not far from this beach isBlanjong Village, which has an inscribed stone monument, erected in 914 A.D. by king Kesariwarmadewa, of the Singadwala kingdom. The stone is 177 centimeters high. It showns a crown on a lotus-shaped base, and a chronogram indicating the year of the monument’s erection.

The Le Mayeur Museum is found on Sanur Beach, north of the Bali Beach Hotel. A former home of the Belgian painter Le Mayeur, themuseum is built in traditional Balinese style, and contains the artist’s painting and persona; belongings. Le Mayeur was born in 2880, and lived in Bali from 1932 to 1958. he died in Belgium in 1958. the house is now a museum., owned by the government but managed by his widow, Ni Pollok, who was during her youth a celebrated Legong dancer.

The padang Salak Museum is not far away, at the west side of Sanur beach. It was built in 1974 to keep the ashes of the PANANAM crew and passengers who died in a plane crash in April 1974.

Kuta Beach 10 kilometers from Denpasar and not far from the airport. If at Sanur people like wach the sunrise, here one can enjoy the sunsets. This beach is good for surfing. An art festival is held once a year at Kuta village.

Canggu Beach is nine kilometers from Kta. Fisherman’s boats are found at the east end of the beach. Batubolong Temple is nearby, Suluban Beach is 20 kilometers away, to the south of Kuta.
Peti Tenget Temple, near Krobokan village, is 10 kiloeters from Denpasar. Temple festival (Piodalan) are held here once in everyd six months.

At the roadside between Gilimanuk and Denpasar is Sada Kapal temple, resembling an East Javanese Candi(Temple). Ancient staues are preserved in this temple, 14 kilometers from Denpasar.

Taman Ayun, a temple of the Mengwi Kingdom, is found at Mengwi village, 18 kilometers from Denpasar. It was built in 1634 by I Gusti Agug Anom , the king of Mengwi as the kingdom’s main temple. The setting is beautiful.
The Mandala Wisata Mengwi is found at the right side of the Temple. It was built in 1973 to stage art exhibition and Balinese dances.

The Pala Sange Forest and Sangeh temple, are 22 kilometers and Balinese away from Denpasar, towards the north. The 10 hectares forest is inhabited by tame monkeys. Sangah Temple, also callaed Bukit Sari Temle, was built in the 17th century, during the Mengwi kingdom era. The monkeys are so tame, or daring, they do not shy away from searching a visitors bag for food. Nearby is Mumbul, a spring considered holy by the people.

Nusa Dua
Nusa dua Beach is 27 kilometers from Denpasar, or nine kilometers from Ngurah Rai International Airport. The Nusa Dua resort is studded with international hotels of the highest standard. It is also center for hotel training.
Benoa is one of the main sea gateways to Bali. Many cruise ships from all over world anchor at this port.
Lawur Uluwatu Temple, 30 kilometers from Denpasar, sits perched atop a cliff, 100 meters above sea level. Temple festivals are held here regularly. The beach below is rocky but very beautiful, and very popular among surfing enthusiasts.
Serangan is a small island, only 112 hectares large. The eastern coast has white sand. The island is also called Turtle Island, because turtles often lay their eggs in the sand on the beaches. Several restauratnt here serve turtle soup and sate (skewered meat), besides other seafoods. From Denpasar, take the road south, for about 10 kilometers, to Suwung Batankendal village. From there take a boat to the island.

A big temple, Sakenan, built in the 16th century, is found at the western end of this island. It is the oldest temple in Bali. Temple festivals are eld here on Kuningan Saturdays. Kuningan is always held on Saturday, ten days after Galungan Day.

At Sesetan village,on the southern outskirts of Denpasar, one can watch famous artists transform pieces of wood into beautiful sculptures.

West Bali :
Tabanan and Jembrana

At Menalun village, 15 kilometers from Denpasar, is the unique Alas Kedaton temple. There are four gates leading to the temple – the split gate standing in the middle of the yard, and the south, north and east gates. This temple is 300 years old, and in it are kept relics of the old megalithic period.

Margarana Heros’ Cemetry, is the monument 25 kilometers from Denpasar. A battle was once waged here on the paddies of Uma Kaang. The current monument was erected to remember the death of I Gusti Ngurah Rai, a leader of Ciung Wanara regiment who died in a more recent battle against the Dutch, on November 20, 1946. Denpasar’s international airport is nameds after him.

Kerambitan village is located seven kilometers west of Tabanan. It is a village of craftsmen. Kelanting Beach nearby is good for surfing. The Andir dance is one of the area’s strong tourist attractions. Gede Kerambitan temple is also found here.

Not far from here, about two kilometers away, is Bedugul, a cool mountain resort. Bedugul lies at an elevation of 1.240 meters above sea level. The average temperature is 180 centigrade during night, and 240 centigrade during day the day. The beautiful scenery can be enjoyed from the side of Lake beratan. From here one can see the vegetable gardens at the north side of the lake. This region produces flowers. The lakeside is often used as camping ground. A splendid golf field is found at Pancasari village, three kilometers toward the north.

Two kilometers toward the west is a botanical garden with various species of flora.
Tanah Lot temple is famous. Lcated 13 kiometers away from tabanan, the temple stands on top of arock that must once have been a promontory, jutting out into the gulf. During high tide, the huge waves of the Indian ocean lash the base of the rock, breaking into white foam. During low tide, one can walk to the temple.

Several Merus (pagodas) stand here midst the scenery. Harmless sea-snakes are found in holes in the rock. They called Due and are considered sacred by the people, so they must not be disturbed.

Kedunggu Beach is located to the west of Tanah Lot, 32 kilometers from Denpasar. It has black sand and the waves are big.
From there, one can visit pesut beach, which is not far away.
At a distance of 34 kilometers from Denpasar, via Tabanan and further to the north, is the ho-water pool of Panatahan, which is populatly known as Yeh Panas. The water contains sulfur.

Luwur Watu Karu temple is found at Wangaya Gde Village, 42 kilometers from Denpasar. Relics of history, such as ancient spears and statues, are kept here.

oka Beach lies at a distance of 46 kilometers from denpasar, towards the west, on the road between Denpasar and Gilimanuk. Batulumbung beach is at the other side of the beach. The views are beautiful.
Further down the road is Payan Beach, with corals in the clear blue sea. The beach slopes gently but the waves are big.

Yeh gangga, is a beach 11 kilometers from the main road between Tabann and Gilimanuk. This beach has black sand. The sea is calm and quite unlike at Tanah Lot.

Jati Luwih is a highland resort in the northern part of the Tabanan region. The air is cool here at a high of 700 meters above sea level. The vistas of this area are among the most impressive of Bali.

Gilimanuk Bay is Bali’s western sea gateway. Gilimanuk is the port serving the ferries that ply the route between java and Bali. The watrs in the Bali strait are calm and very suitable for water sports. The sun rises from behind Mount Sangiang. Or Klatakan.
Baturiti lies in a mountainous region and the natural scenery is beautiful, with many hills and green, small forests.
In the little town of Negara, one can see bull races. Yeh Embang village is ten kilometers from Negara, and to the east of it is Rambut Siwi temple. This is the biggest temple in the western part of Bali. The temple stands 3000 meters from the road towards Jembranan. Besides the temple , the setting of sea and paddies are just as alluring.
Drop by at Purancak, a recreation park with a fishing gpond, not far away. Urancak temple s found here. There s a fisherman’s hamlet on the bach. Asah Duren village is 20 kilometers from Negara, in mountainous region. Clove trees grow in this area. About 10 kilometers away is Madewi Beach.

Central Bali :
Gianyar, Ubud and Bangli

Enering th ecneter part of Bali Island, means to come into the Gianyar regency. Gaduh temple, seven kilometers from Gianya, has astatue of Kebo Iwa, a holy person who lived around the 12th century.

Eight kilometers from Denpasar is batu Bulan village. Sculptors who make the statue from stone are found here. The sacred barong and Kris dance are shown every day to tourists.

At a distance of three kilometers from Batu bulan, is Celuk, a village which is a center of the gold and silver craft. Art shops stand in rows along roadsides, selling souvenirs.

About 20 kilometers from Denpasar flows the Ayung Kedewatan river, the longest river on the island of Bali. The river has its origin in the Penulisan hills and its mouth on Sanur Beach. The river valley is very lovely, with the green hills in the background and paddies fields strewn across the landscape.

Not far from the road between Denpasar ad Tampaksiring, is the village Mas, famous especially for its wood carvings and sculptures.

On route between Denpasar and ubud, 21 kilometers from Denpasar, ne finds Peliatan village, famed for its legong kraton and Sekehegong dances.

About four kilometers before ianyar town, is Kutri village, on a junction between Bedulu and Gianyar. There are three temples standing close to each other, known respectively as Puseh, Bukit Dharma and Kedharan. There is a staue of te Bodhisattwa Amoghapaca in the temple of puseh, kept inside a close chamber. The Bodhisattwa Amoghapaca was a reincarnation of Buddha, and believed also to be the reincarnation of King Airlagga. A staue of Durga, Shiva’s consort, is found in the temple of Kedharman. It is 220 centimeters high. The statues said to be reincarnation of Gunapriyadharmapatni, Airlangga’s mother. The grave of queen Mahendradatta is found in the bukit Darma Temple, where she is immortalized in a statue of Durga, the six-armed godest, standing on a bull.

Reliefs carved on the rocks are found in the enaksiran valley, near Kutri, at tegal Lingga village.
The barong ance at Batu Bulan village begins at 9:00 p.m. it illustrates the fight between good and evil. The Barong is a mythical animal, embodying virtue. Rangda, the witch, embodies evil .

Gajah Cave is found at Bedulu village, 26 kilometers from Denpasar. It gets its name from the elephant figure and the statues of the elephant god Ganesya, that are found at the cave’s entrance. The cave was once a hermit’s abode, and was constructed by King kasari Warmadewa, in 917 A.D. A waterfall and a pool are found nearby.

Mandla Wisata Samuan has a stage and halls for art and culture exhibtios, lying next to the Samuan Tiga temple. Pejeng lies between Beduli and Tampaksiring. Pejeng is the center of an old Balinese kingdom. Forty temples and some historical relics are found here.

The “Moon of Pejeng” is a kettle-drum, kept at the Panataran Sasih temple. According to and old Balinese legend, the earth once had seven moon. One fell onto the earth, shining brightly. It was so bright, night was like day, and thief were afraid to do their evil work. One of the thieves, however, had enough courage to urinate on the moon, and so it’s luster dimmed. The “moon of Pejeng” is shaped like a huge kettle, but served as a drum. It is considered sacred by the people. It is almost two meters long and smaller in diameter in the middle. It is made of solid bronze. It has a diameter of 1.865 meters at both ends.

Syiwa Bhairawa and Cebol, statue fragments, are found in the kebo edan temple. The Syiwa Bhairawa statue illustrates a giant 3.60 meters tall. Pusrering Jagat temple is found nearby.
Canggih Sakah temple, is 500 meters off the road between Denpasar and gianyar. It has a very old gate, Ganesya statues and miniature statues.

Ubud village is a major center of the arts in Bali. Ubud grew from small village into the famous resort that it is today. It became famous as an art colony and tourist destination since the arrival of Walter Sies, a Geran painter who establish the Pita Maha artists organization. the famous museum, Puri Lukisan was started by Rudolf Bonnet, a Dutch painter, with the aim of preserving the high quality of Bali’s art works. Ubud has many artists, but it is especially known for its painters. Ubud is also known for its Legong dancers. The village lies 28 kilometers from Denpasar. The warna Warta museum is also found here.

There is also the Neka Museum at Campuan Ubud village, where works of art are exhibited, among them 100 paintings by teja neka, who founded this museum.

Bona, 30 kilometers from denpasar, is the village where kecak dance was developed. It is also known for its lontar palm-leaf manuscripts and bamboo plaiting. Saba Beach, with its beautiful scenery and forest in the background, is nearby. The beach slopes gently towards the sea and has black sand. The Sukaluwih temple is found nearby.

At Tampaksiring village, on the road to Tirta Empul, is mount Kawi. To reach the holy baths, one must go on foot over steep and winding paths.

Mengening temple is not far from Mount Kawi and tirta Empul, approximately 10 kilometers from gianyar.
The Tirta Empul temple is found in the Tampaksiring district, 36 kilometers from denpasar, behind the presidential rest house, built in 1957. Tirta Empul means spring-water. There are other springs in other parts of the area, which people use for bathing. Temple festivals are held on Wage metal Tuesdays. A spring is also found under a tree outside the temple grounds. The place is crowded with tourists on Galungan Day. The air here is cool and refreshing.

The bukit Jati Swimming Pool is found to the east of Gianyar, 37 kilometers from Denpasar. It is located at the foot of Jati Hill, and is surrounded by neatly built rice terraces.

The town Bangli lies t the foot of Bangli Hill. The Kehen temple is found in the northern part of the town, its terrace facing south. Various relics are kept in this temple. One of them is metal plaque with inscription, dating from 1204.the Sasana Budaya bali art center, is visible from the south side of the temple. The name Kehen is derived from the word – keren or kuren, which means family.

The Segening Statue is in the southern part of Bangli. It I shaped like a dome and there is a spring nearby. The paddies and gardens provide a pleasant backdrop.

At Cempaka village, approximately two kilometers from the ceneter of the town, is Sakti Bukit Temple, with its three rectangular stupas. The temple is also called Lingga cudhamani.

Demulih Hill, three kilometers away at the west of Bangli, has very attractive scenery. In the pasy, the kings of Bali built a residence in this region. Many parts of the building are now damaged. Temples are also found in this area.

Mount Batur is a 1.717 meter –high volcano, suitable for mountaineering. Lake Batur lies in the shadow of the mountain’s peak. Batur is an active volcano and still emits smoke. The old lava has changed into black stone, lying scattered on its slopes. Plants now grow on the old lava path.

Mount Agung (3.142 meters) had its las violent eruption in1963. mount Batu Kar (2.093 meters), and Mount Abang (2.152 meters) are not far away.
Lake Batur lies in between the mountains Batur and Abang. Walk down the slope from Penelokan to enjoy the scenery at lake batur.

From the mooring at Kendisan village, on the lake’s shore, one can take a boat to Trunyan, a village where the dead are laid in the forest and left to decompose. This is the heartland of the Bali Oga, the original people of Bali. The caste system is not known here. It is said that the corpses decompose without smelling, presumably because of the presence of fragrant taru trees, in the forest.

A four meters tall statue is resumably kept in a concealed place. It is the statue of Ratu Gede Pancering Jagad, the ruler of the center of the world, who is considered the protector iof Trunyan village.

Kintamani 68 kilometers from Denpasar, is a poular mountain resort with a cool, refreshing climate and beautiful scenery. The lake lies below the village, but is often hidden by mist.

Batur Temple, at batur village, is located on the road between Bangli and Singaraja. It is an irrigation temple. And looks very pretty against the backdrop of the lake.

The Pancering Jagad temple is Trunyan’s main shrine. It gets name from a very large stone statue which is presumably stored inside, represeninting the village’s guardian god.

Penulisan temple stands on penulisan Hill (1.745 meters), 25 kilometers west of Kintamani. A group of temples presumably dating from the ninth century is found on its slope. They are the Ratu Daha Tua Temple, Penarajon temple, and another small temple, there are also some ancient statues from the 11th century, such as that of Bethari Mandhul, the consort of King Anak Wungsu, and a four-faced, or catur Muka, statue. Penulisan temple is a temple of the bali Aga people. To reach it one must climb a steep flight of steps.

North Bali :
Singaraja and Bulelang
Singaraja, 65 kilometers from Denpasar, is a port town. The Kirtya Building, is a library in Singaraja which keeps ancient texts written on lontar palm leaves. In former days the building served as the office of the Dutch governor of Bali. The botanical garden Eka Karya lies between singaraja and Denpasar , and is 50 hectares large.

The pojok batu temple stands on the rocky shore of the Tejakula district, 25 kilometers north of Singaraja. The temple was built by Dang Hyang Niratha in 1989 A>D. when the king Udayana was consolidating the Hindu faith in Bali. The building is made of stone. Two ancient staues, those of Catur Buja and Nandini, are kept in the temple.

Kubu Gembong Beach is located four kilometers from Singaraja, on the rood to Gilimanuk via Seririt. It is a black rocky beach fringed by coconut trees. The blue mountains risee in the distance. Ideal for fishing and water sports. Two kilometers further down the shore, is Happy Beach.

Panji temple in anji village, seven kilometers from Singaraja. The temple is known for the Goak-Goakan and Sapi Grudukan ceremonies that are held here. The Beji Sangsit temple is in Sangsit village, one kilometers from panji. It was built in the 15th century and is a Subak (water) temple. It is coveed with carved ornaments in north-balinese style.

The Gigit Ressthouse is nine kilometers away from Singaraja. It is located in the hills amidst rice fields. From here, one can look down on the plains and the sea. Ship docked at Buleleng harbor are clearly visible.

The Bhuwana Kerta monument stands in Panji village, 11 kilometers from Singaraja. Not far away is Lovina Beach, at Kalibukbuk village, 12 kilometers west Singaraja. The name Lovina is derived from a small lodging house in the area. Bamboo cottages rest in the shade of coconut trees.
Approximately 13 kilometers to the west of Singaraja, is Singsing waterfall, 100 meters high.
There is hot-water pool at Banjar village, surrounded by greenery. Wanara Buka lies at the side of Lake Tamblingan in the hills behind Singaraja.

Asah Gobleg lies between Lake Tamblingan and lake Buyan, in the green hills. It is a popular holiday resort.

Buleleng harbor lies on the northern coast of Bali. This is where the first Dutch soldiers landed to subdue the island’s stubborn ulers in the bloody puputan wars. Today, many people go fishing along the harbor.
Approximately 26 kilometers to the west of Singaraja, is celukan Bawang harbor. Coconut groves line the shore, landing beauty as well as coolness to the surroundings.

Tanjung Alam Beach, more to the west, has clean black sand suitable for water sports.
Pulaki temple is about 50 kilometers towards the north of Singaraja. The temple lies on the slope of a mountain, facing the sea. Pemuteran temple is part of this complex. There is a hot-water spring in its yard.

There is another hot-spring in the Banyuwedang surrounding wher the scenery is ver beautiful.
Menjangan Island lies near the western tip of Bali, near Celukan, erima Bay. The water around the islad are exelent for skin-diving. Its sea gardens are beautiful and filled with corals and decoratives fishes. It can be reached by small boat. Terima Bay, lies 76 kilometers to the grave of Jaya Prana, a famous legendary figure, is also found here.

East Bali
Kulungkung, Nusa Penida and Karang Asem

East Bali comprises the regencies Klungkung and Karang asem.
Kentel Bumi temple, an ancient temple built by Empu Kuturan around the 11th century, stands on the roadside near Klungkung, 37 kilometers from Denpasar.old historical relics are found at Meru, Lingga and few other palaces in the area.

Erta Gosa Hall/ Gili Park are located aside the main road in Klungkung town, 40 kilometers from Dnepasar. It is a legacy of the 18th century Klungkung kingdom, which was ruled by King Kresna Kepakisan. The Kerta Gosa is a pavilion inside the royal palace ground. The royal residence itself, Puri Semara Pura, was destroyed during the war against the Dutch at the beginning of this century. There is a “floating pavilion” called Balai Kambang located in the middle of a lotus pond, all part of the old pleasure gardens known as Taman Gili. The ceiling of the Kerta Gosa is covered with very artistic painting.

The Panti Timbrah temple is located 1.5 kilometers from Klungkung. Built by Jero Bandesa at Paksa village, it is well –known Subak Temple. Temple festivals are held on Kliwon Kuningan Mondays.
The Bobo or Taman Sari Temple is 2.5 kilometers from Klungkung. Sang Bono is a unique dance that is performed nowhere else.
Gelgel, three kilometers from Klungkung, near the south coast, was the capital of the old kingdom before it was waived to Klungkung. Nowadays, the village is known for its gold and silver crafts. Dasar Gelgel temple is found here. It was built by Empu Kuturan in 1804, during the reign of king Cri Wira Dalem kesori.

Kamasan village lies a little to te south of Klungkung. The village earned its name from the many gold craftsmen who live and work here, but is now better known as a village of painters of the old wayang (puppet) style.

Leather puppets are also made here . the Klotok temple lies on KlotokBeach, about one kilometer from Kamasan or four kilometers to the south of Klungkung. The temple was built by Empu Kututran in 1084.
Lapang beach, 4.5 kilometrs from Klungkung, borders a calm sea. Coconut trees grow in rows along the shore.

Jungutbatu Beach is found on Nusa Lembongan Island, near Nusa Penida. The coral reefs off this beach are wonderfull, and teeming with life.

Nusa Penida
Nusa Penida is the group of island off Bali’s southeast coast, that consisits of three islands: Nusa Lembongan, Nusa Ceningan and Nusa Penida itself. They are barren coral islands but have an allure that is all their own.

Lawah cave is found at the side of the road leading to the other side of the island. Puncak Sari temple is found on the top of the cave. The cave is three meters high and is occupied by bats. It is said to have been a secret meeting place where the rulers of Bali met to discuss plans for revolt against the Dutch. Temple festivals are held during certain Tuesday.

Lembongan Island has attractive scenery. It can be reached in two hours by motorboat from Sanur. Nusa lembongan is 8.6 square kilometers large. Its beaches have bone-white sand. The water is clean, the corals and fishes beautiful. Excellent for skin-diving and other water sports.

Nusa Peninda covers a surface of 1.911 square kilometer. This island is much visited by tourists during he season when the valuable swallow’s nest are harvested. Gathering the nests is an important source of live hood.

The best known spot in the Karangasem regency is perhaps Besakih, bali’s mother temple. There are, however, amny other objects worth visiting, such as Bukit Jambul Hill, on the road between Klungkung and Besakih, 12 kilometers north of Klungkung. Restaurants and coffee-shops are available.

Not far from here, about 60 kilometrs away from Denpasar or 13 kilometersfrom Klungkung, is Besakih Bali’s mother temple. It consists of 18 temple complexes. Besakih lies on the slope of Mount Agung at an altitude anout 1.000 meters above sea leveli. The three main temples are Batu Madeg in the northwestf, Kidulng Kretig in the south, and penataran Agung in the middle. Fifty-five different ceremonies are held here every year, but the most important of all is Betara Turun Kabeh, held every full moon o the tenth month of the Balinese lunar calende, when all the gods descends to the earth. Other important ceremonies are Panca Wali karma (once every 10 years) and Eka Dasa Rudra (once in a century).

Candi Dasa temple is found on the roadside between Denpasar and Amlapura, 64 kilometers from Denpasar. A Hariti statue, representing a woman surrounded by children, is kept in the temple.
Tenganan, or Tenganan Pegringsingan, is a village lying 6y kilometers to the northeast of Denpasar. The village is famed for the very fine gringsin ikat textiles that are handwoven there by village women.

There are three court yards, which divide this village into three Banjars (small Community units): banjar Kauh in the west, the banjar Tengah in the middle and Banjar Pande in the east. The village community hall, outh hall, rice barn and temple are found in the middle.

The people of tenganan are regarded as the original inhabiants of Bali, and arecalled the Bali Aga. Their customs and traditions are governed by regulation known as Awig-awig. One religious ceremony that is most interesting to watch is Kare-kare, in which young men engage each other in a ceremonial fight, using thorny pandanus leaves as weapon.

The inhabitants of Tenganan are very religious people. Almost their whole life is dedicated to worship. Variourites and ceremonies are known. The most important one is held every 16th, 17th and 18th of June, and is called the Sasih Sama ceremony. It is dedicated to Dewa Indra, the god of prosperity.
During this ceremony, men and women wear gringsing cloth, because in their belief this will protect them against evil.

The caste system or social stratification is not known here. The one god worship is Dewa Indra.
The dead are laid to rest without any clothes on, in the same state as when he was born. The body is allowed to remain in the house for a night only.

Bukit Gunung temple is found in Bugbug village, 68 kilometers from Denpasar. A unique event during the temple festivals in this temple is Dewa Mepalu, or the fight between gods.

Putung village, in the Karangasem regency, is known for its sacred Sangiang dance. It is usually performed during temple festivals, which take place once in every six months. It is a trance dance in which the dancers trample on glowing coals and dance standing on another dancer’s shoulders.

The holy temple of Karangasem is in the center of Amlapura, the capital of the Karangasem regency, 78 kilometers from Denpasar. The teple was built in 1909 by A. Toana, an European. There is a pond in the temple yard, surrounded by pavilions. The names of main pavilions are Amsterdam Hall and London Hall.

Taman Ujung park, five kilometers south of Amlapura, was in the past a pleasure garden of the kings of Karangasem. There is a lotus podnd in the park, and the bulding displays a blend of Balinese and European influence.

Tirta Gangga, a beautifull park surrounded by paddies, is six kilometers north of Amlapura. There is a mountain in the middle of a pond. Tirta Gangga was built by te king of Karangasem, A.A Anglurah ketut Karangasem, in 1946.

About 25 kilometers from Amlapura, is Tulamben Beach. The wreckage of an old ship lies at the bottom of the sea, and makes a favourite target for duvers.

Iseh village lies in the Sideman district, 20 kilometers from Kaangasem, with very attractive surroundings. The village is a popular holiday resort.

Religious ceremonies, such as usaha Dangsil, are often held at Bungayan village in the middle of the month of August. The village is known for its crafts and dances (pendet and rejang0.

Kambing Island is an attractive resort for recreation and diving. The submarine garden are beautiful.
Sibetan village isknown for its sweet salak (snake fruits).

“…The expedition is exhausting, no doubt, but the sheer size and beauty be seen to be believed. This was definitely a life altering experience …”

Gerrard Neve, Rinjani 2004

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